Tecumseh, Treaty of Fort Wayne and the Comet of 1811

Tecumseh, Treaty of Fort Wayne and the Comet of 1811

In September 1809 William Henry Harrison, then governor of the Indiana Territory, invited the Potawatomi, Lenape, Eel River people, and the Miami to a meeting in Fort Wayne, Indiana. In the negotiations, Harrison promised large subsidies and payments to the tribes if they would cede the lands he was asking for.[29] After two weeks of negotiating, the Potawatomi leaders convinced the Miami to accept the treaty as reciprocity, because the Potawatomi had earlier accepted treaties less advantageous to them at the request of the Miami. Finally the tribes signed the Treaty of Fort Wayne on September 30, 1809, thereby selling the United States over 3,000,000 acres (approximately 12,000 km²), chiefly along the Wabash River north of Vincennes, Indiana.[29]

Tecumseh was outraged by the Treaty of Fort Wayne, believing that American Indian land was owned in common by all tribes, an idea advocated in previous years by the Shawnee leader Blue Jacket and the Mohawk leader Joseph Brant.[30] In response, Tecumseh began to expand on the teachings of his brother, known as The Prophet, who called for the tribes to return to their ancestral ways. He began to associate the teachings with the idea of a pan-tribal alliance. Tecumseh traveled widely, urging warriors to abandon the accommodationist chiefs and to join the resistance at Prophetstown.[30]

In August 1810, Tecumseh led 400 armed warriors to confront Governor Harrison in Vincennes. Tecumseh demanded that Harrison nullify the Fort Wayne treaty, threatening to kill the chiefs who had signed it.[31] Harrison refused, stating that the Miami were the owners of the land and could sell it if they so chose.[32] Tecumseh left peacefully, but warned Harrison that he would seek an alliance with the British unless the treaty was nullified.[33]

 Comet_of_1811
The Great Comet of 1811, as drawn by William Henry Smyth

In March the Great Comet of 1811 appeared. During the next year, tensions between American colonists and Native Americans rose quickly. Four settlers were murdered on the Missouri River and, in another incident, natives seized a boatload of supplies from a group of traders. Harrison summoned Tecumseh to Vincennes to explain the actions of his allies.[33] In August 1811, the two leaders met, with Tecumseh assuring Harrison that the Shawnee intended to remain at peace with the United States.

Afterward Tecumseh traveled to the Southeast on a mission to recruit allies against the United States among the “Five Civilized Tribes.” His name Tekoomsē meant “Shooting Star” or “Panther Across The Sky.”[34] He told the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muscogee, and many others that the comet of March 1811 had signaled his coming. He also said that the people would see a sign proving that the Great Spirit had sent him.

While Tecumseh was traveling, both sides readied for the Battle of Tippecanoe. Harrison assembled a small force of army regulars and militia in preparation to combat the Native forces.[35] On November 6, 1811, Harrison led this army of about 1,000 men to Prophetstown, Indiana, hoping to disperse Tecumseh’s confederacy.[36] Early next morning, forces under The Prophet prematurely attacked Harrison’s army at the Tippecanoe River near the Wabash. Though outnumbered, Harrison repulsed the attack, forcing the Natives to retreat and abandon Prophetstown. Harrison’s men burned the village and returned home.[37] This was the end of Tecumseh’s dream of a united native alliance against the whites.

On December 11, 1811, the New Madrid earthquake shook the Muscogee lands and the Midwest. While the interpretation of this event varied from tribe to tribe, they agreed that the powerful earthquake had to have meant something. The earthquake and its aftershocks helped the Tecumseh resistance movement as the Muscogee and other Native American tribes believed it was a sign that the Shawnee must be supported and that this was the sign Tecumseh had prophesied.

 New_Madrid_Erdbeben
The New Madrid earthquake was interpreted by the Muscogee as a reason to support the Shawnee resistance.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shawnee

Piqua Shawnee

www.piquashawnee.com

 

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Tecumseh Poem “Give Thanks”

Tecumseh – Give Thanks

 

When you rise in the morning, give thanks for the light, for your life, for your strength. 

Give thanks for your food and for the joy of living. 

If you see no reason to give thanks, the fault lies in yourself.

~ Tecumseh 

 

 

http://www.nativehistorymagazine.com/2013/06/tecumseh-give-thanks.html

Piqua Shawnee

www.piquashawnee.com

Pontiac’s Rebellion

Pontiac’s Rebellion

Pontiac’s Rebellion Summary and Definition: Pontiac’s Rebellion, aka the Pontiac War (1763 – 1766), broke out in the Ohio River Valley. Chief Pontiac (1720-1769) was a powerful and respected head chief of the Ottawa, Chippewa and Potawatomi. Chief Pontiac led a rebellion of a number of tribes against the British and the colonists. Pontiac’s Rebellion followed the defeat of the French in the French Indian War (1754-1763) and the conclusion of the series of conflicts referred to as the French and Indian Wars. Many of the Native American Indians, primarily in the Great Lakes region, had close trading relationships with France and were appalled to find that the lands were now under the control of the British. Pontiac’s Rebellion was an attempt by an alliance of some Native American Indian tribes to prevent Great Britain from occupying the land previously claimed by France. Pontiac’s War failed but the rebellion hastened the implementation of the Royal Proclamation of 1763 establishing a massive boundary called the Proclamation Line. The Proclamation of 1763 was designed to calm the fears of American Native Indians by halting the westward expansion by colonists whilst expanding the lucrative fur trade.

Names of Native American tribes in Pontiac’s Rebellion
The names of the tribes who supported Chief Pontiac’s rebellion were:

The tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy were British allies and did not want to become involved with Pontiac’s War. However, many of the Seneca tribe decided to join the rebellion.

Pontiac’s Rebellion: Map of the region called ‘Pays d’en haut’

Pontiac’s Rebellion – Pays d’en haut
The Native Indian tribes involved in Pontiac’s Rebellion lived within an area controlled by New France before their defeat in the French Indian War known as the ‘Pays d’en haut’  meaning the upper country.

Read More:

Visit the Official Website of the Piqua Shawnee

 

How did Piqua get its Name?

How did the Town of Piqua get its name?

Rosalie Yoakam, Contributing Writer

Wednesday, June 25, 2014

photos.medleyphoto.5243938
Fort Piqua

A town grew out of the wilderness of Miami County after one pioneer built a log house near the Great Miami River in 1798.

Job Gard, a former soldier under “Mad Anthony Wayne,” was the pioneer. The land was about eight miles north of Troy on the west bank of the Great Miami River where there was a bend in the river.

The earth in this place had been roughly worked by the Shawnee Indians for several years and they raised corn there.

Gard built a log cabin, improved the fields and put up rail fences. Soon Gard sold his holdings to John Manning and ventured off into the backwoods again.

Other settlers moved into the area and built log cabins near each other for protection from the Indians. They also erected a block house and stockade for defense in case of attack. The building was made of sturdy logs and had no windows. The picket stockade had a huge gate that was secured with a padlock the size of a dinner plate. These structures were located near the river on the south side of present day East Water Street.

In 1807 the village, consisting of seven houses, was surveyed by Armstrong Brandon and named Washington. A short distance north was a Shawnee town called Piqua.

Piqua means “ashes” in the Shawnee language. An old legend explains the naming of the Shawnee village. Many years before, the Shawnee had captured a member of a tribe they were warring against and burned him at the stake. Then, to their amazement a human figure began to slowly grow from the ashes of their victim. The natives exclaimed, “Otatha-he-wagh-piqua!” or “He comes out of the ashes.”

In 1811 John Johnston moved his family to land he had purchased close to Washington, Ohio. There he built a brick house near a large spring on a site named Johnston’s Prairie. A year later the War of 1812 occurred and a new Indian agency was established near Washington, Johnston was appointed the agent.

About six thousand neutral Native Americans were moved to his area and Johnston worked to keep them friendly to the United States. His role was so crucial that several British assassination plans to eliminate him were hatched but thwarted by his Native American friends.

The increase in business, due to Johnston’s work during The War of 1812, helped the growth of Washington.

By 1816 the Shawnee village of Piqua had been abandoned, and the citizens of Washington asked the state legislature to let them change the name of their town to Piqua. Their request was granted.

Piqua was incorporated by the Ohio General Assembly in 1823. Thus, a town grew from the beginning work of one man, Gard, who perhaps never knew the outcome of his labor.

Piqua Shawnee

Visit the Official Website Piquashawnee.com

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piqua,_Ohio

 

One Hundred Stories from Our Own History by Lawton B. Evans (Milton Bradley Co., Springfield Mass. 1920.)

The Native American Story of Tecumseh
America First—One Hundred Stories from Our Own History

by Lawton B. Evans

The Story of Tecumseh
Tecumseh was probably the greatest American Indian that race has ever produced. He was the most eloquent orator ever known among the Indian tribes. When he spoke, his voice was deep and full, like an organ, his face shone with emotion, and his words were remarkable for their poetic beauty.

His father was a Shawnee warrior, and was killed in battle with white settlers, when Tecumseh was a mere child. This impressed him with a great resolve to keep the white men out of the Indian lands, and to fight them whenever he could.

He possessed a sensitive dignity, as is shown by the following incident. Upon one occasion, when he came with his warriors to hold a conference with General Harrison, he looked around, after he had finished his address, to find a seat. Seeing that none had been reserved for him, he appeared offended.

A white man, seated near General Harrison, arose and offered him his seat, saying, “Your father wishes you to sit by his side.”

“The sun is my father, and the earth is my mother. I shall sit in his light and rest on her bosom,” said Tecumseh. Whereupon, he sat down on the ground, in the full light of the sun.

Tecumseh was a noble soldier, and never allowed any prisoners to be tortured. He promised General Harrison that, in case of war between the Indians and the whites, he would not permit his warriors to massacre women and children. He faithfully kept his word. At the siege of Fort Meigs, the Indians began murdering their prisoners. Tecumseh ran in, and, brandishing his tomahawk, bade them stop at once. Turning to General Procter, who stood looking on, he cried out,

“Why do you permit this outrage? Why did you not stop those men, and save those wretched prisoners?”

Procter replied that the Indians could not be restrained, and that he could not prevent the massacre.

Tecumseh was furious at this, and said, “Begone, you coward. You are not fit to command men. Go and put on a petticoat, and sit with the women, where you belong.”

Procter was not a brave soldier, and, at one time, burned his stores and abandoned his fort, even though he had a thousand men and three thousand Indian allies. Tecumseh was so disgusted with his cowardice, that he compared him to a fat dog, who barked and held his tail high, when there was no danger, but who howled, and dropped his tail between his legs and ran, whenever any one attacked him.

When Tecumseh went to Alabama to stir up the Creek Indians against the whites of that section, he found them unwilling to rise against their neighbors and friends. All his eloquence failed to move them, and, to all his appeals and threats, they merely shook their heads. Finally, in a burst of anger, he cried out,

“Your blood is white, and no longer runs red like the rising sun. You do not fight because you are cowards and are afraid to fight. You do not believe the Great Spirit has sent me, but you shall believe it. I am going back to Detroit. It will take me many days, but when I reach there, I shall tell the Great Spirit, and I shall stamp my foot on the ground, and shake every house in your village.”

So saying, he left, and journeyed northward. The Indians counted the days until he should reach home. Strangely enough, about the time he was due there, an earthquake shook the village. The Indians rushed wildly for their dwellings, crying out,

“Tecumseh has arrived in Detroit; he has told the Great Spirit; we feel the stamping of his foot!”

The last battle in which this warrior was engaged was that of the Thames. The Americans had been pursuing the British and their Indian allies for some time, until Tecumseh was tired of the disgraceful state of affairs, and told the British officer, Procter, that he would retreat no longer. “We will stand here and give battle,” said he. “I and my warriors were not made for running away from our enemies.”

The result was the battle of the Thames. At the opening of the conflict, Tecumseh turned to his friends, and said,

“Brother warriors, I shall never come out of this battle alive. I go there to die, but I go. My body will remain on the field, I know it will be so.

He unbuckled his sword, and handed it to one of his Chiefs, and said, “When my son becomes a great warrior, give him this sword, and tell him his father died like a brave Chief and a hero. Tell my people I died for their rights.” With that, he also took off the British uniform, which he had been wearing, and put on his own savage dress and war-paint.

The battle raged for a while with fury. Procter at last fled through the swamps and wilderness, escaping with a few followers. Tecumseh, however, brandishing his club, rushed upon his pursuers, and fell, pierced with many wounds.

https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/america-first-lawton-b-evans/1115181691

https://www.warpaths2peacepipes.com/native-american-stories/tecumseh.htm

Reading List for learning American History, from youth to adult:

http://wildflowerramblings.com/american-history/living-books-american-history-classical-conversations-cycle-3/

Piqua Shawnee

www.piquashawnee.com

Piqua Shawnee

Piqua Shawnee

From Bhamwiki

 

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The Piqua Shawnee (officially the Picqua Sept of Ohio Shawnee) is one of nine indigenous tribes recognized by the Alabama Indian Affairs Commission. Evidence for Shawnee settlement in present-day Alabama dates to the late 17th century.

The Shawnee tribe was centered in the area of present day Indiana and Ohio. The Picqua or Peckuwe Sept was one of five tribal divisions named for a legendary evil man who was sent back from death to lead a group of Shawnee to walk in harmony with the great spirit. He appeared to the group in a cloud of smoke billowing from the coals of their fire. “Peckuwe” means “man who rises from the ashes.”

The tribe was forced twice to scatter, first by the Iroquis in the 1660s. Some settled in Alabama, where they lived among and were often grouped with other tribes as “Creeks” by traders in the territories. The Alabama Shawnee, unlike many of their tribesmen north of the Tennessee River, did not return to Ohio after peace was made. A new wave arrived in the late 18th and early 19th century, seeking refuge from the continuing fighting between French, English and American interests in King George’s War and the French and Indian War.

It was among the Shawnee that an outbreak of smallpox introduced by infected blankets from Fort Pitt during Pontiac’s rebellion took its greatest toll. Other tribes which had allied with the French in King George’s War had already been exposed to the disease. Smallpox spread with the Shawnee into Creek territory in the South, and then among the Chickasaw and Choctaw and to British colonists as well.

After the Creek Indian War most indigenous people were resettled in the Oklahoma territory, but many were able to avoid resettlement or later returned. The Picqua Sept now represents a small number of interrelated families that preserve Shawnee heritage and live scattered around the south, midwest and Canada. The tribe was officially recognized in Kentucky in 1991 and in Alabama in 2001.

Visit the Official Website of the Piqua Shawnee Tribe

www.piquashawnee.com

What are some traditional Shawnee Indian food recipes?

What are some traditional Shawnee Indian food recipes?

Shawnee cakes and three sisters soup are some traditional recipes from the Shawnee Indians. Variations of these recipes were used by Native American tribes throughout North America and were also adapted by European settlers.

The exact origin of Shawnee cakes is unknown, but some historians believe the dish originally belonged to the Shawnee people. These simple fried corn cakes, also known as Johnny cakes and hoe cakes, are still widely consumed, particularly in the southeast and New England. One cup of cornmeal, 1 1/2 cups of boiling water and a pinch of salt are the basic ingredients, although some modern recipes substitute 1/2 cup of milk. Fry spoonfuls of the batter in a heavy skillet until crisp and golden brown on both sides.

Like many Native American tribes, the Shawnees depended on farming as an essential part of their food supply. Corn, beans and squash, or the three sisters, were a significant part of their cuisine and their culture. Combine 2 cups of canned hominy, 2 cups of trimmed green beans, 2 cups of cubed butternut squash and 1 1/2 cups of diced potatoes in a large stock pot with 5 cups of water and 1 1/2 tablespoons of chicken bouillon granules. Bring the mixture to a boil, and then simmer on low heat for 10 minutes. Stir 2 tablespoons of melted butter into 2 tablespoons of flour, add it to the soup, and cook over medium heat for five minutes.

Sources:

whatscookingamerica.net

allrecipes.com

nativetech.org

Visit the Official Website of the Piqua Shawnee

www.piquashawnee.com