George Blanchard’s Shawnee Language Revitalization

George Blanchard’s Shawnee Language Revitalization

Absentee-Shawnee Elder George Blanchard’s Shawnee language classes were profiled on the PBS show “The American Experience” in 2009.

George Blanchard describes the importance of the Shawnee language to the identity of the tribe.

Colonial Williamsburg’s Center for Teaching, Learning, and Leadership provides American history and civics materials nationwide. For more great videos, lesson plans, interactive games and more, create a free account on the Colonial Williamsburg Education Resource Library: resourcelibrary.history.org.

Learn More:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VczoCnbJDUk

http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Shawnee_language 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shawnee_language 

https://colonialwilliamsburg.com/

Visit:

Piqua Shawnee at www.piquashawnee.com

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2010 U.S. Census Report American Indian Populations

2010 U.S. Census Report American Indian Populations

UNITED STATES TRIBES & PEOPLE

There are 562 federally recognized tribes in the United States. Of these 229 are located in Alaska and the remainder are spread across 33 other states.

The 2010 U.S. Census reported 2.9 million people with pure American Indian and Alaska Native ancestry. Native Americans of mixed race totaled 2.3 million.

The combined U.S. population in 2010 was 5.2 million American Indians and Alaska Natives. The 5 states with the most population are these:

California

Oklahoma

Arizona

New Mexico

Texas

362,801

321,687

296,529

193,222

170,972

For all state populations and more census information, visit the census report titled “The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010”.

Visit the Complete Census Report

https://www.census.gov/2010census/

Look up Tribes by State:

https://500nations.com/500_Tribes.asp

Piqua Shawnee

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Panther in The Sky By James Alexander Thom, February 13, 1990

 

What particularly distinguishes this splendidly vigorous and imaginative recreation of the life of the great Shawnee chief Tecumseh (1768-1813) is its bid to capture the spirit of Midwestern Indian culture from within,” commented PW.
Copyright 1990 Reed Business Information, Inc. 

 “Thom shows how, in honest, capable hands, fictionalized biography can add verisimilitude to the life and times of this extraordinary America….The dialogue has the ring of reality about it….Thom is able to get into the thoughts and emotions of his characters….”
DEE BROWN
LOS ANGELES TIMES
Rich, colorful and bursting with excitement, this remarkable story turns James Alexander Thom’s power and passion for American history to the epic story of Tecumseh’s life and give us a heart-thumping novel of one man’s magnificent destiny–to unite his people in the struggle to save their land and their way of life from the relentless press of the white settlers. 

Available on Amazon.com

 https://www.amazon.com/dp/0345366387?_encoding=UTF8&isInIframe=0&n=283155&ref_=dp_proddesc_0&s=books&showDetailProductDesc=1#product-description_feature_div

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The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography: Transculturation

The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography published an interesting article/research on Transculturation of the Anglo-American and American Indian that went in both directions.  The influence and adoption of food, cooking, farming, and building.  The below is an excerpt, the full publication can be read by following the link below.

The Pennsylvania Magazine

Of History and Biography

Pennsylvania Captives among the Ohio Indians,  1755- 1765

THE    PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY Vol. CXXV, No. 3 July 2001

…Pennsylvania captives were fully integrated into Indian society. Most captives were adopted to replace deceased family members and even acquired their social status. Peter Lewney, for instance, was adopted by a Detroit headman to replace a deceased relative and was soon fully integrated into his new family. He was regarded as a respected warrior and encouraged to attend important diplomatic meetings with the French. Several captives even rose to positions of influence in their new homes. George Brown became “one of the chief Men among the Shawnese” and Joshua Renick a Miami headman. Hugh Gibson was adopted to replace a brother of Pisquetomen, an influential Delaware headman.

Their central place in the families of the Ohio Indians meant that they were able to acculturate their families into Anglo-American practices. Although captivity accounts arc often very vague on the routine of the captives’ daily lives, it appears that on a day-to-day level they repeatedly influenced the lives of their captors.35Captives were used in a wide variety of tasks, particularly around the home where they were in close contact with their captors. Mary Jemison reported that she was “employed in nursing the children, and doing light work about the house.”36  Marie Le  Roy and Barbara Leininger were similarly employed planting crops and washing and cooking. Captives also served as teachers of English to their new families. Indeed, by the 1760s many Ohio Indians appear to have mastered the English language with a reasonable degree of fluency. On occasion, the Ohio Indians also took advantage of their ability to read. Robert Rutherford, for instance, a British soldier captured during Pontiac’s War, was ordered to translate British documents for his captors. Taken individually these instances may not amount to a dramatic cultural transformation of the lives of Ohio in clans. However, when compounded hundreds of times, with captives present in the majority of  Ohio villages, and when added to the flow of captured household goods, captives served to introduce European customs into the Ohio Valley. In Mary Jemi son’s case, for instance, this might have amounted to no more than showing her adopted family how to use a fork seized from a colonist’s plantation.

The skills of captives were important because the war brought so many new items to the Ohio Valley. Raiders bought back with them household utensils, clothing, agricultural implements, almost anything that they, or the horses they seized, could any. Captives played an important role in showing the Ohio villagers bow to use their new booty. Before the war, domesticated cattle had been very uncommon in the Ohio Valley. The Moravian missionary David Zeisberger commented that in general the Ohio Indians “do not care to keep c-.itd e, for in that case they must remain at home to look after it [sic] and are prevented from going into the forest. 38 However, captives such as Susanna Johnson, captured by the Iroquois, who reported how she  spent  much  of  her  time  tending  cows,  may  have  played  an important role in informing the Ohio Indians about the core of such animals.39 By the early l 760s James Kenny was able to report how one Delaware headman living on the Ohio River had even constructed “several Stables & Cow houses under one Root” and had  become  widely  known  for his skill in making butter. By the late 1760s Anglo-American travelers to the region where commenting on the numerous cattle and pigs that roamed  the Ohio woods, and even on the Ohio Indians’ skill in producing butter and cheese.”°

Captives may also have facilitated an even more fundamental cultural transformation. James Kenny related how in 1761 he came across a village of houses with “Stone Chimneys &several frame Buildings,_,,. Captives like Hugh Gibson, who was employed in producing clapboards, may have played a crucial role in teaching the Ohio Indians these new construction skills. By the late eighteenth century, many Ohio Indians had abandoned traditional building techniques and were living in clapboard houses of European style. Thomas Cape told how some Shawnees even sowed the wheat that they had obtained during raids on the backcountry and attempted to produce their own wheat and bread.42 By the 1760s David Zeisberger reported that the Ohio Indians had even begun to forge their own iron and make hatchets and axes. The adoption of European housing, forging, and agricultural techniques represents a fundamental acculturation of the Ohio Indians. Indeed, Alden T. Vaughan and Daniel K. Richter have argued that” adoption of English-style housing seems to have been one of the last steps in transculturation.”43

https://journals.psu.edu/pmhb/article/viewFile/45458/45179

THE P ENNSYLVANIAMACAZINE OF HISTORY AND BIOCRAPMY Vol. CXXV, No. 3 July 2001

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Preserve & Protect our History and Culture – STOP Act 2017

Piqua Shawnee, along with the National Congress of American Indians, asks you to show your support for the 

Safeguard Tribal Objects of Patrimony (STOP) Act of 2017

On November 8 at 2:30 (EDT), the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs will hold a legislative hearing to receive testimony on the Safeguard Tribal Objects of Patrimony (STOP) Act of 2017 (S. 1400). This legislation has broad support from Indian Country and NCAI is asking Tribes to submit their support for this legislation and become part of the hearing record.

 

The STOP Act would strengthen existing federal statutes protecting Native American cultural heritage with an emphasis on facilitating the return of protected items exported and trafficked abroad. Specifically, the STOP Act increases penalties for violations of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and provides an explicit prohibition on exporting items obtained in violation of NAGPRA, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA), or the Antiquities Act. The legislation does not extend the reach of these three laws to tribal cultural heritage that is not already protected, and thus it does not criminalize any currently legal domestic activity. Instead, it increases the deterrent effect of current law by imposing heightened penalties and provides that traffickers may not export their contraband. Additionally, the STOP Act creates a structure for federal facilitation of the voluntary return of tribal cultural heritage and engages tribes through a working group to provide input on implementation.

NCAI has two resolutions which align with the intent of the STOP Act and call upon the United States government to address international repatriation and take affirmative actions to stop the theft and illegal sale of tribal cultural items both domestically and abroad (SAC-12-008 and SD-15-075). You can find NCAI’s letter of support here.

The Senate Committee on Indian Affairs is holding a legislative hearing on the STOP Act on Wednesday, November 8, 2017. There is strong bi-partisan support in Congress for the STOP Act but opposition from some antiquities dealers and collectors, who are mobilizing on the Hill, threatens the bill’s progress. This hearing is a critical opportunity for Indian Country to provide their positions on the record about the importance of protecting tribal cultural heritage.

We are asking tribes and tribal organizations to support the STOP Act before this important hearing. You can show support by:

  1. Sending a letter to Committee members expressing support for the bill, with your senators copied. You can find a template letter of support here. Testimony can be sent here. To ensure NCAI can track tribal support, please CC mgivens@ncai.org when you submit); and
  2. Calling or meeting with Committee staff and your senator, especially if he or she is a member of the Committee, expressing your support for the bill.

Senate Committee on Indian Affairs Members 

NCAI Contact Info: Denise Desiderio, Policy Director, ddesiderio@ncai.org

 

John Hoeven, Chairman (ND) Tom Udall, Vice Chairman (NM)
(202) 224-2551 (202) 224-6621
John McCain (AZ) Lisa Murkowski (AK)
(202) 224-2235 (202) 224-6665
James Lankford (OK) Steve Daines (MT)
(202) 224-5754 (202) 224-2651
Michael Crapo (ID) Jerry Moran (KS)
(202) 224-6142 (202) 224-6521
John Barrasso (WY) Jon Tester (MT)
(202) 224-6441 (202) 224-2644
Al Franken (MN) Brian Schatz (HI)
(202) 224-5641 (202) 224-3934
Heidi Heitkamp (ND) Catherine Cortez Masto (NV)
(202) 224-2043

http://www.piquashawnee.com/news-alert

Letter From NCAI to Chairman:

http://files.constantcontact.com/c2394f27001/af1f8732-a061-450c-932c-c7c79b372501.pdf

STOP Act of 2017

http://files.constantcontact.com/c2394f27001/617e486d-d2ba-43f3-8732-78010601067a.pdf

(202) 224-354

Tecumseh, Treaty of Fort Wayne and the Comet of 1811

Tecumseh, Treaty of Fort Wayne and the Comet of 1811

In September 1809 William Henry Harrison, then governor of the Indiana Territory, invited the Potawatomi, Lenape, Eel River people, and the Miami to a meeting in Fort Wayne, Indiana. In the negotiations, Harrison promised large subsidies and payments to the tribes if they would cede the lands he was asking for.[29] After two weeks of negotiating, the Potawatomi leaders convinced the Miami to accept the treaty as reciprocity, because the Potawatomi had earlier accepted treaties less advantageous to them at the request of the Miami. Finally the tribes signed the Treaty of Fort Wayne on September 30, 1809, thereby selling the United States over 3,000,000 acres (approximately 12,000 km²), chiefly along the Wabash River north of Vincennes, Indiana.[29]

Tecumseh was outraged by the Treaty of Fort Wayne, believing that American Indian land was owned in common by all tribes, an idea advocated in previous years by the Shawnee leader Blue Jacket and the Mohawk leader Joseph Brant.[30] In response, Tecumseh began to expand on the teachings of his brother, known as The Prophet, who called for the tribes to return to their ancestral ways. He began to associate the teachings with the idea of a pan-tribal alliance. Tecumseh traveled widely, urging warriors to abandon the accommodationist chiefs and to join the resistance at Prophetstown.[30]

In August 1810, Tecumseh led 400 armed warriors to confront Governor Harrison in Vincennes. Tecumseh demanded that Harrison nullify the Fort Wayne treaty, threatening to kill the chiefs who had signed it.[31] Harrison refused, stating that the Miami were the owners of the land and could sell it if they so chose.[32] Tecumseh left peacefully, but warned Harrison that he would seek an alliance with the British unless the treaty was nullified.[33]

 Comet_of_1811
The Great Comet of 1811, as drawn by William Henry Smyth

In March the Great Comet of 1811 appeared. During the next year, tensions between American colonists and Native Americans rose quickly. Four settlers were murdered on the Missouri River and, in another incident, natives seized a boatload of supplies from a group of traders. Harrison summoned Tecumseh to Vincennes to explain the actions of his allies.[33] In August 1811, the two leaders met, with Tecumseh assuring Harrison that the Shawnee intended to remain at peace with the United States.

Afterward Tecumseh traveled to the Southeast on a mission to recruit allies against the United States among the “Five Civilized Tribes.” His name Tekoomsē meant “Shooting Star” or “Panther Across The Sky.”[34] He told the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muscogee, and many others that the comet of March 1811 had signaled his coming. He also said that the people would see a sign proving that the Great Spirit had sent him.

While Tecumseh was traveling, both sides readied for the Battle of Tippecanoe. Harrison assembled a small force of army regulars and militia in preparation to combat the Native forces.[35] On November 6, 1811, Harrison led this army of about 1,000 men to Prophetstown, Indiana, hoping to disperse Tecumseh’s confederacy.[36] Early next morning, forces under The Prophet prematurely attacked Harrison’s army at the Tippecanoe River near the Wabash. Though outnumbered, Harrison repulsed the attack, forcing the Natives to retreat and abandon Prophetstown. Harrison’s men burned the village and returned home.[37] This was the end of Tecumseh’s dream of a united native alliance against the whites.

On December 11, 1811, the New Madrid earthquake shook the Muscogee lands and the Midwest. While the interpretation of this event varied from tribe to tribe, they agreed that the powerful earthquake had to have meant something. The earthquake and its aftershocks helped the Tecumseh resistance movement as the Muscogee and other Native American tribes believed it was a sign that the Shawnee must be supported and that this was the sign Tecumseh had prophesied.

 New_Madrid_Erdbeben
The New Madrid earthquake was interpreted by the Muscogee as a reason to support the Shawnee resistance.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shawnee

Piqua Shawnee

www.piquashawnee.com

 

Tecumseh Poem “Give Thanks”

Tecumseh – Give Thanks

 

When you rise in the morning, give thanks for the light, for your life, for your strength. 

Give thanks for your food and for the joy of living. 

If you see no reason to give thanks, the fault lies in yourself.

~ Tecumseh 

 

 

http://www.nativehistorymagazine.com/2013/06/tecumseh-give-thanks.html

Piqua Shawnee

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